Iterators LLC (en-US) Blog 2022-12-02T10:55:01+00:00 https://iteratorstesting.com/blog/feed Iterators LLC (en-US) info@iteratorstesting.com https://iteratorstesting.com/blog/best-mobile-automation-testing-tools 10 Best Mobile Application Testing Tools in 2022 2022-11-07T17:30:00+00:00 2022-11-17T09:29:23+00:00 Jill Willcox https://iteratorstesting.com/

As the mobile app development landscape continues to evolve, so too must the tools and technologies used to test these apps. With new platforms, frameworks, and devices being released all the time, it can be hard to keep up with the latest trends in mobile automation testing.

That's why we've put together this list of the best mobile automation testing tools currently available. Whether you're looking for a tool to help you test your app's functionality, UI, or performance, we've got you covered.

So without further ado, here are the 10 best app testing tools for 2022.

Top Mobile App Testing Tools for Automation Testing

1. Appium

2. TestRigor

3. Selendroid

4. Calabash

5. Ranorex

6. Katalon

7. TestGrid

8. Kobiton

9. Perfecto

10. KIF

#1 Appium

Appium

Supported Platforms: iOS, Android, Windows, and Linux

Price: Open source tool

Appium is an open source test automation tool for mobile apps. It can be used to test native, web, and hybrid apps.

Fitures of Appium:

  • Support common programming languages: Java, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, and C#.
  • Proof is available in multiple languages for your convenience, these include but are not limited to Ruby, Java, PHP, Node and Python.
  • Easy to setup on a different platform
  • You are not limited to a specific testing framework
  • You don't need to install anything on the device
  • The Selenium WebDriver JSON wire protocol is still operational
  • Integrates with BrowserStack, and Jenkins
  • It can be integrated with other tools with the help of Java
  • Supports Security Testing, Web Testing, API Testing, Performance Testing, and more
  • Provides Record-and-replay, Cross-browsing functionality, real devices testing, No-code automation

If you're looking for a tool to help you automate your mobile app testing, Appium is a great choice. It's an open source tool that supports multiple platforms and can be used with any testing framework.

#2 TestRigor

Test rigor

Supported Platforms: iOS, Android, Windows

Price: Free Public Open Source, and paid plans starting at $900/month

TestRigor is a mobile automation testing tool that supports both native and web apps. It has a number of features that make it a great choice for mobile automation testing.

Features of TestRigor:

  • Support programming languages: Python, Java, Ruby, JavaScript, PHP, and C#
  • Supports API Testing, Audio Testing, Functional Testing, Security Testing, and more
  • Integrates with TestRail, Zephyr, XRay, Jira, Azure DevOps, Jenkins, CircleCI, Azure DevOps, and more
  • By combining Web, Mobile, and API testing into a single process, we can more quickly and accurately find errors.
  • Web Recorder
  • Provides Record-and-replay, No-code automation, Cross-browsing functionality
  • There are no limits to the number of users or tests
  • Email & SMS testing
  • Offers such frameworks as Android, iOS, Angular, React, React Native, and Flutter
  • Offers 2FA login support, Mocking of API calls, Validation of downloaded files, Accessing DBs, Generate unique test data, multiple browsers and devices and Reusable Rules
  • English for test cases and require no coding

TestRigor is a great choice for mobile automation testing. It supports multiple platforms and can be used with any testing framework. It also offers a number of features that make it a great choice for mobile automation testing, including support for multiple programming languages, seamless integration with popular tools.

#3 Selendroid

Selendroid

Supported Platforms: Android

Price: Open source tool

Selendroid is a test automation tool for Android apps. It can be used to test native, web, and hybrid apps.

Features of Selendroid:

  • Support programming language: Java
  • Offers Full compatibility, No modification of app under test, Advanced User Interactions API, hot plugging of hardware devices, Multiple Android target, and simplify test case development
  • Can interact with multiple Android devices simultaneously
  • No alteration of app under test is needed for it's automation
  • Fully compatible with JSON wire protocol
  • The same concept for automating native or hybrid apps can be applied to mobile web testing
  • Supports hot plugging of hardware devices
  • Selendroid's Selenium Inspector tool is useful for mobile testing because it allows you to inspect the UI of your app
  • You can find UI elements by using different locator types
  • Test how your websites look and perform on real devices

Selendroid is a great mobile automation testing tool for Android apps. It offers great features that can make your testing for Android easy and fun.

#4 Calabash

Calabash

Supported Platforms: iOS, Android

Price: Open source tool

Calabash is a test automation tool for native and hybrid mobile apps. It can be used to test apps on iOS and Android.

Features of Calabash:

  • Support programming language: Java, and Ruby
  • Offered frameworks: Xamarin, and React Native
  • Provides APIs that are native to touch screen apps
  • Supports both Functional and Automated testing
  • It has libraries that enable test-code to automatically connect with native and hybrid appsI
  • Integrates with Jira
  • Supports cucumber framework
  • Provides real devices testing and record-and-replay

Calabash is a top mobile automation testing tool for native and hybrid mobile apps. It's easy to use and can make your testing life much simpler.

#5 Ranorex

Randorex

Supported Platforms: iOS, Android

Price: Paid plans tarting at €830 per year for license and €165 annual M&S

Ranorex is a test automation tool used for various testing purposes. Mobile testing can be difficult, but Ranorex makes it easy with its low-code interface and helpful wizards - perfect for beginners.

Features of Ranorex:

  • Provides support for all popular programming languages
  • Offers different framework like Appium, and Selendroid
  • No jailbreak or rooting required
  • Can test all types of mobile apps, including native, web, and hybrid apps
  • Ranorex Studio provides a set of tools that makes it easy to create, maintain, and execute automated tests for mobile apps.
  • Ranorex Mobile Recorder allows you to record your interactions with a mobile app and then playback the recorded steps to test the app.
  • Ranorex Mobile Simulator allows you to test your mobile app on a simulated device.
  • Ranorex Test Cloud allows you to run your tests on real devices in the cloud.

Ranorex is a great tool for automating the testing of mobile apps. It is easy to use and has a wide range of features that make it a powerful tool for mobile app testing.

#6 Katalon

Katalon

Supported Platforms: iOS, Android

Price: Free plan, and paid plans strating at 25$/month

Katalon is a comprehensive toolset for mobile app testing. It supports both iOS and Android devices, and offers a wide range of features to help you ensure the quality of your app.

Features of Katalon:

  • Supported programming language:JavaScript, Python, VBScript, JScript, Delphi, C++, and C#
  • Integrates with Azure DevOps, Google Cloud Build, BrowserStack, CodeMagic, Circle CI, Curiosity, GitHub
  • Offers Autonomous Script Generation, Speed, Flexibility & Scalability, Visibility, Innovation & AI and Affordability & ROI,Self-Healing
  • With Flexible Test Reusability, you can easily recycle your tests across mobile platforms, APIs, and web browsers
  • Easy to set up and use, with record & playback capabilities, keywords, and image recognition.
  • Tests can be executed both locally and remotely on actual devices, simulators, or custom cloud-based devices (Sauces Lab, Kobiton, Perfecto, Lambda Test)
  • Use our insightful test reports to better monitor progress and collaborate across teams
  • Provides Record-and-replay, No-code automation, Cross-browsing functionality, and real devices testing
  • Built-in integration with such project management tools as sJira, Git, Jenkins, etc.
  • Offers frameworks: Flutter, Xamarin, and React Native
  • Supports Desktop Testing, Visual Testing, API Testing, Mobile Testing, Web Testing, and more

Katalon is a great tool for both experienced testers and those new to mobile automation testing. Its wide range of features and support for multiple platforms make it a versatile tool that can be used in a variety of situations.

#7 TestGrid

Testgrid

Supported Platforms: iOS, Android, BlackBerry and Windows

Price: Free plan, and paid plans starting from $59/month

TestGrid is a cloud-based mobile testing platform that supports both iOS and Android devices. It offers a wide range of features to help you ensure the quality of your app.

Features of TestGrid:

  • Supported programming languages: Java, C#, Ruby, Python, Perl, and PHP
  • Record-and-replay, No-code automation, Cross-browsing functionality, and real devices testing
  • Supports Security Testing, Performance Testing, IoT Testing, API Testing, Automation Testing
  • Run tests in parallel to decrease test times and get your product to market quicker
  • Cloud Infrastructure, Test Data Management Suite, On-Prem Support, IoT Automation, Robotic Test Automation, Test Case Management Suite, and API Test Automation are available
  • With our Appium and XCUITest code generator, you will be able to create downloadable code
  • No-code automation that uses artificial intelligence
  • On-cloud and on-premise are available
  • Offers such frameworks as NodeJS, and React Native
  • Integrates with JIRA, Travis, Jenkins, TestRail, GitLab, CircleCI, BitBar, MS TFS, and more

Overall, TestGrid is a great mobile testing platform that offers a wide range of features to help you ensure the quality of your app. If you're looking for a comprehensive solution to help you test your mobile app, TestGrid is definitely worth considering.

#8 Kobiton

Kobiton

Supported Platforms: iOS, Android

Price: Paid plans starting at $75/month

Kobiton is a test automation tool that make mobile apps work better. You can test your app in a fraction of the time it would normally take with Kobiton mobile device testing, using real devices and next-gen automation.

Features of Kobiton:

  • Supported programming languages: C#, Java, Ruby, NodeJS, PHP, and Python
  • Offers Rich Test Logs, Capabilities, Performance, Agile Test Enabler, Customizable Test Cloud, and Optimized Efficiency
  • Integrates with Jira, Jenkins, Travis CI, TeamCity, XebiaLabs, Azure DevOps, Circleci
  • A streamlined user experience that makes it easy to conduct test sessions
  • Having a centralized location for all your team's testing history and data logs makes collaboration much easier
  • Offers No-code automation, Record-and-replay, Cross-browsing functionality, and real devices testing
  • The newest devices and configurations that are based in the cloud
  • Internal Device Lab Management is available
  • The on-premises deployment option provides extra security for your data
  • Offers such frameworks as Xamarin, React Native, Ionic, Flutter, and Electron NativeScript
  • Supports Performance, Automation, Manual and Functional Testing

Kobiton is a great tool for mobile automation testing. With its support for multiple programming languages and frameworks, Kobiton makes it easy to test your app's functionality, UI, and performance. Kobiton also offers a free trial so you can try it out before you commit to a paid plan.

#9 Perfecto

Perfecto

Supported Platforms: iOS, Android

Price: Paid plans starting at $99/month

Perfecto is a cloud-based test automation tool that helps you deliver high-quality mobile apps faster. You can test your app on real devices in the cloud, without the need for expensive infrastructure.

Features of Perfecto:

  • Supported programming languages: Java, JavaScript, C#, Python, and PHP
  • Record-and-replay, No-code automation Cross-browsing functionality, and real devices testing are provided
  • Automated Testing, Continuous Testing, Mobile Application Testing, Interactive Testing, Web Testing are supported
  • Coverage that can't be beat, across all platforms and testing scenarios
  • Offers Intelligent Reporting & Debugging, Visual Creation, Cloud-Based Collaboration, Intelligent Test Creation & Maintenance, Automatic Device Cleanup, Live Session Sharing, and Secure Local Tunneling
  • Get new devices, operating systems, and more on the same day they release
  • Integrates with Eclipse, IntelliJ, Appium, Perfecto, Espresso, Quantum, Jira, TestNG, JUnit, Slack
  • A cloud platform that streamlines web and mobile app testing
  • Reliable security and scalability for businesses of all sizes
  • Offers such frameworks as Flutter, Xamarin, and React Native

Perfecto is a great mobile automation testing tool if you're looking for something that will help you deliver high-quality mobile apps faster. It supports a wide range of programming languages, platforms, and testing scenarios. It also offers strong security and scalability features making it ideal for enterprise-grade mobile app testing.


#10 KIF

KIF

Supported Platforms: iOS

Price: Open source tool

KIF is an open-source test automation tool for iOS that helps you automate UI testing. It's easy to use and integrates well with popular continuous integration tools like Jenkins and Travis CI.

Features of KIF:

  • Supported programming language: C
  • Integrates with Xcode
  • Having everything in a single language (Objective C) makes it simpler for iOS developers to learn
  • KIF interacts with UI elements using their accessibility labels
  • React Native framework is offered
  • Offers Xcode, Minimizes Indirection, Easy Configuration, Wide OS, and Xcode
  • Has impressive command line and CI features.
  • It supports gestures pretty well
  • Functional Testing is supported
  • Real devices testing and Record-and-replay, esting are provided

KIF is a great tool for automating UI testing on iOS. It's easy to use and integrates well with popular continuous integration tools. It offers a wide range of features, including support for programming languages like C, seamless integration with Xcode, and support for different frameworks like React Native.

Summary

Overall, these are some of the best mobile automation testing tools available on the market today. If you're looking for a tool to help you test your app's functionality, UI, or performance, we highly recommend any of the tools on this list. With their support for multiple programming languages and frameworks, these tools will make it easy to test your mobile app regardless of its size or complexity. Thanks for reading!

FAQ

What is mobile automation testing?

Mobile automation testing refers to the process of automating the testing of mobile applications. This can include functional testing, performance testing, and UI testing. Automation tools can help speed up the mobile testing process by reducing the need for manual input and allowing tests to be run more quickly and efficiently.

What are some of the benefits of mobile automation testing?

Some of the benefits of mobile automation testing include the ability to reduce the amount of time needed for mobile testing, improve test coverage, and find bugs more easily. Automation can also help to improve the accuracy of mobile tests, as well as make it easier to re-run tests if necessary.

What are some of the best mobile automation testing tools?

Some of the best mobile automation testing tools include Appium, Perfecto, and KIF. No matter the size or language of your app, these various tools can support you. Their easy-to-use interface makes creating a mobile app simple and quick.

How do I choose the right mobile automation testing tool for my app?

When choosing a mobile automation testing tool, it's important to consider the specific needs of your app. Some things to keep in mind include the size and complexity of your app, the programming languages you're using, and the frameworks you're working with. Additionally, it's important to consider the features offered by each tool and how well they fit with your overall testing strategy.


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https://iteratorstesting.com/blog/mobile-app-performance-testing Mobile App Functional and Performance Testing 2022-10-04T07:57:00+00:00 2022-11-08T10:22:47+00:00 David Willcox https://iteratorstesting.com/

Mobile Apps provide unique challenges for development and especially for software testing. This article describes some of the key challenges in functional and performance testing of mobile apps and provides suggested resources for improving the mobile application performance testing.

In This Article
Mobile App Functional and Performance Testing
Why Are Mobile Apps Unique?
Are There Different Types of Mobile Apps?
Why is Mobile App Testing Challenging?
Who Should Test a Mobile App?
Who Needs to Performance Test Mobile Apps?
Strategy for Performance Testing Mobile Apps
Summary

Why Are Mobile Apps Unique?

One reason the mobile apps are unique is that mobile devices are unique. There are a wide range of devices for both Android and iOS operating systems ranging from phones that are several years old, to tablets that are much larger and brand new. Android, in particular, have devices made by multiple manufacturers and some of these devices are left running older versions of the operating system and have different features within those devices.

Another reason that mobile apps are unique is that the mobile devices are mobile. Apps are then used with a wide range of environments. The quality of internet connections then varies widely from high quality WIFI within your home, to low quality cellular content in a subway tunnel.

Additionally, mobile app users are often multitasking and running several different apps at the same time, receiving notifications from various services, playing music, etc.

Are There Different Types of Mobile Apps?

There are three main types of mobile applications: Standard, Network and Hybrid. A standard app is one that runs entirely on the phone regardless of having an internet connection. For example, perhaps a puzzle game that does not require the internet to play the game. The other extreme is a network app will only work when it has a full internet connection. An example might be a weather radar app which has to download real time information to be useful. In contrast, a hybrid app is one that uses the internet, but also has some functionality without the internet. Most apps are in this category. For example, the app could download information from the internet (videos, messages, etc), and then the user can watch this downloaded content while offline.

These different types of apps then have different testing requirements. Bugs may occur as different apps are running and using resources on the phone.

Why is Mobile App Testing Challenging?

Performance test mobile apps

These different types of apps and different mobile configurations increase the complexity of testing an app. At a minimum, a mobile device farm is needed to allow a range of devices to be tested. The device farm can be a set of actual devices, simulators, or remote devices available over the web. It is impossible to take mobile application performance test for all devices, display sizes, operating systems, etc, so some creativity is needed in order to effectively test a mobile device.

Who Should Test a Mobile App?

Developers perform the first set of testing as they develop their app, however, a separate set of software testers should also perform the end-to-end testing of the app under realistic conditions. For example, a developer may test on the simulator available in the development environment, or on their own phone. Often, this also means that the developer is on the same network as the backend server that supports the content available for the app. We at Iterators had one client with an app that included GPS location as part of their app and a back end server that stored all of the information. We reported several bugs even related to the login feature and the developers had trouble replicating these bugs because they had local access to the backend server, while we were at a different location and were not able to reliably access the server through the app.

In general, it is very helpful to have a set of independent software testers in addition to the developers. Software Testers provide a different perspective and should look at the software from the user’s perspective. Developers and Product Owners tend to use the “happy path” because they know how the software was designed. Good software testers will test a variety of conditions and not always use the software the “right” way in order to find issues that users will encounter as they try to use the software.

Who Needs to Performance Test Mobile Apps?

Mobile app testing

Performance testing is very important for most mobile apps. Apps that do not use a network connection should still be tested on a variety of phones and tablets that have different operating systems and on older devices that have slower processors. Apps that do use a network connection have the additional need to test on variety of network connections, including dropped connections.

Performance testing can be completed as part of the functional testing. Software testers should pay attention to the responsiveness of the system as the testing is completed under different network conditions.

If the app involves the use of a backend server, then the server performance should also be tested. This should consider the number of users that are expected during the rollout. The expected number of users can be simulated using API performance testing software that can track the response time for typical user interactions. Another common problem is to consider the performance of the production server rather than a staging server. Often, projects use a staging server that has a different configuration than then production server. It is important to try this out before the launch so that the production server is ready to go at launch time.

Development environments often have an option to monitor network traffic and the interactions can be monitored directly. Software testers can do this as long the developer provides a debug build of the app. Note that the debug build may impact the performance of the software too, and this can provide a good stress test of the performance of the app.

Strategy for Performance Testing Mobile Apps

Strategy for performance testing mobile apps

A strategy must start with objectives. Is your app going to be used worldwide, or by a niche set of users? Will there be thousands of users simultaneously, or only a small chance of simultaneous users? Will the demand be relatively even each day, or are there peak demand needs, such as introducing a sale or a new download. The second component is to look at the architecture of your design to look for potential issues. Perhaps your app has a niche market and your content is provided by a single server running the backend of your app. In this case, it is definitely useful to test from a remote location so that the testing is not done on the same network as the server itself.

A smaller app could then benefit from an initial triage with actual software testers. We at Iterators, LLC have tested several apps and websites with performance issues. We observe these issues as we also perform the functional testing for the app. Sometimes this can be sufficient for apps expected with a light usage on the backend and the key metric is to make sure that the server responds in a reasonable amount of time.

Apps expected to have more requests sent to the backend require additional planning and tools to complete the testing. The next section describes available tools that can create traffic from multiple users and then track the response times.

Best Mobile Performance Testing Tools

Best mobile performance testing tools

The following introduces several mobile application performance testing tools with links to their websites for more information. In general, you should research these to determine which fits your needs whether that means you are looking for a free tool that you are willing to invest time learning to use, or a more expensive tool that is preconfigured to be easier to use.

Postman is a standard tool for functional and performance testing of APIs. This tool can set up tests to simulate different load on the backend server and measure the performance.

Blazemeter and JMeter are other useful tools for API performance testing. These tools are often compared to each other, so research which is best for your needs. JMeter is also good option for taking load testing.

Akami Cloudtest also provides API testing features for your backend server.

Apptim is designed more specifically for mobile apps and includes several aspects of mobile app performance. This includes checking battery usage, screen rendering time, nonresponsiveness

Eggplant is a major vendor with several performance tools for mobile apps. This tool can be used as part of a Continuous Integration / Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) pipeline.

Tricentis is another major supplier of testing tools including Performance testing.

Summary

Mobile apps are unique in that they are designed for use on small, portable devices. This can make performance testing challenging, as you need to take into account factors such as screen size and battery life. Who should test a mobile app? Who needs to performance test mobile apps? We hope we've answered these questions.

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https://iteratorstesting.com/blog/software-testing-conferences-usa The Top Software Testing Conferences in the USA 2022-09-28T11:02:00+00:00 2022-10-27T11:40:13+00:00 David Willcox https://iteratorstesting.com/

As the software testing industry is always evolving, it's important to stay ahead of the curve and keep up with the latest trends and standards. Attending software testing conferences is a great way to do this, as you'll be able to learn from some of the best minds in the industry.

If you're based in the United States, there are plenty of great conferences to choose from. In this article, we'll highlight some of the top software testing conferences in the United States.

Below you will find recommended software testing events for both 2022 and 2023.

5 Leading Software Testing Conferences in the USA in 2022

Below you'll find the list of conferences you might want to attend in what remains of 2022:

  • STARWEST
  • Association for Software Testing (AST) Conference
  • Pacific Northwest Software Quality Conference
  • International Conference on Software Testing Process (ICSTP)
  • International Conference on Software Maintenance Planning, Engineering and System Testing
In This Article
The Top Software Testing Conferences in the USA
5 Leading Software Testing Conferences in the USA in 2022
1. STARWEST Conference
2. Association for Software Testing (AST) Conference
3. Pacific Northwest Software Quality Conference (PNWQA)
4. International Conference on Software Testing Process (ICSTP)
5. International Conference on Software Maintenance Planning, Engineering and System Testing
4 Top Software Testing Conferences in the USA in 2023
1. STAREAST Conference
2. The American Society for Quality: ASQ World Conference on Quality and Improvement
3. USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation
4. Software Test Professionals (STP) Conference
Summary

1. STARWEST Conference

Dates: October 2 - October 7, 2022

Location: Anaheim, CA & Online

STARWEST conference

STARWEST is one of the leading software testing conferences in the USA. Held annually in Anaheim, California, it attracts attendees from all over the world. The conference features over 100 presentations and workshops on a wide range of topics, making it an ideal event for anyone looking to stay up-to-date with the latest trends and developments in software testing.

Some of the top speakers at STARWEST include:

- Mike Wacker, Principal Engineer at Amazon

- Matt Heusser, Managing Consultant at Excelon Development

- Lisa Crispin, Co-author of "Agile Testing"

The conference is a great opportunity to learn from some of the best minds in the industry and stay up-to-date with the latest trends.

2. Association for Software Testing (AST) Conference

Dates: November 7 - November 8, 2022

Location: San Diego, CA

AST conference

Association for Software Testing is another premier software testing conference in the United States. In addition to learning from top industry minds, AST offers plenty of networking opportunities, so you can make valuable connections with other professionals in the field.

Some of the top speakers at this year's AST conference include:

- Lisa Crispin: co-author of "Agile Testing" and "More Agile Testing"

- Matthew Heusser: author of "How software is built"

- Mike Lowe: creator of the popular blog "Testing in the Pub"

If you're interested in attending the AST conference, you can find more information on their website.

3. Pacific Northwest Software Quality Conference (PNWQA)

October 2 - October 7, 2022

Portland, OR & Online

PNSQC conference

If you're looking for a software testing conference in the Pacific Northwest, the PNWQA is a great option. Meeting and learning from some of the brightest minds in the industry, this experience will help you stay ahead of the curve in quality assurance and testing. You'll have a lot of chances to mingle with other professionals in your field.

Some of the top speakers at this year's PNWQA conference include:

- Jennifer Bonine: author of "Testing in the Cloud"

- Matt Heusser: author of "How software is built"

- Mikey Ciarlante: creator of the popular blog "The QA Lead"

The PNWQA conference is a great opportunity to learn more about the quality assurance field!

4. International Conference on Software Testing Process (ICSTP)

Dates: October 27 - October 28, 2022

Location: Los Angeles, CA

ICSTP conference

The International Conference on Software Testing Process (ICSTP) is another great event to attend if you want to stay ahead of the competition. You will be able to learn from experienced professionals and get an inside look into current trends.

Some of the top speakers at International Conference on Software Testing Process include:

- keynote speaker Geir A. Olsen

- testing process expert Kevin T. McGrath

- software testing and analysis guru Doris Chen

These are just some of the top speakers that will be in attendance at the International Conference on Software Testing Process. You won't want to miss out on this unique opportunity to learn from some of the best in the business.

5. International Conference on Software Maintenance Planning, Engineering and System Testing

Dates: December 9- December 10, 2022

Location: New York, NY

ICSMPEST conference

The International Conference on Software Maintenance Planning, Engineering and System Testing (ICSMPEST) focuses on the latest advances in software maintenance, engineering and system testing. Attendees will have the opportunity to learn from experts in the field and network with other professionals.

Some of the top speakers at ICSMPEST include:

- Dr. Andreas Zeller, who is a professor of software engineering at the University of Saarland in Germany.

- Dr. Daniel M. German, who is a professor of computer science at the University of Victoria in Canada.

- Dr. Lionel C. Briand, who is a professor of software engineering at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland.

If you're interested in staying up-to-date with the latest trends in software testing, this is a conference you won't want to miss.

4 Top Software Testing Conferences in the USA in 2023

If you are already working on your 2023 professional development schedule, the following software testing events are worth considering adding to your calendar.

1. STAREAST Conference

Dates: April 30 – May 5, 2023

Location: Orlando, CA & Online

The STAREAST conference is one of the most prominent software testing conferences in America. It is held in Orlando, Florida every year, and it attracts people from all over the world. The conference, which attracts thousands of attendees each year, includes over 100 presentations and workshops on a range of themes, making it an ideal event for anybody interested in staying up to speed with current software testing trends and advancements.

The speakers at STAREAST will be announced soon. STAREAST is the companion conference to STARWEST.

The conference is a great opportunity to learn from some of the best minds in the industry and stay up-to-date with the latest trends.

2. The American Society for Quality: ASQ World Conference on Quality and Improvement

Dates: May 7-10, 2023

Location: Philadelphia, PA

The ASQ World Conference on Quality and Improvement is a can't-miss event for anyone involved in software testing and quality assurance. Attendees can expect to gain valuable insights from experts in the field, exchange knowledge with fellow professionals, and learn about the latest trends and developments in software testing.

3. USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation

Dates: July 10-12, 2023

Location: Boston, MA

The USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation is one of the premier events for software testing and development professionals. Attendees of the conference will have the opportunity to hear from some of the leading researchers in software testing and development, as well as learn about recent advances made in these fields.

4. Software Test Professionals (STP) Conference

Dates: April 10-23, 2023

Location: Washington, DC

Software Test Professionals is a can't-miss event for anyone involved in software testing and quality assurance. Attendees can expect to learn new skills, acquire fresh insights from subject-matter experts, and collaborate with other testers.

Summary

If you're looking to stay ahead of the curve in the software testing industry, attending at least one of these top conferences is a great way to do so. You'll have the opportunity to learn from some of the best minds in the business and network with other professionals. So mark your calendars and make plans to attend one of these events in 2022 and 2023!

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https://iteratorstesting.com/blog/art-of-software-testing The Art Of Software Testing 2022-09-19T11:41:00+00:00 2022-10-27T11:40:44+00:00 Jill Willcox https://iteratorstesting.com/

The Importance Of Software Testing: Why Quality Assurance Matters

There is an art to testing software. As software testers, testing desktops, websites, mobile testing and enterprise software projects, in Functionality testing, Exploratory testing, Accessibility testing, WCAG2.2, Section 508 and Automation, including Automated Regression testing, we can often walk a fine line when developers tell a mutual client that they can test the application without software testers.

Of course, we don't agree as our job is quite different than that of a developer. As independent software testers, we provide clients with comprehensive software testing so that as many bugs can be found and fixed before the client signs off on a project, releasing the developers and signing off on the project.

In This Article
The Art Of Software Testing
The Importance Of Software Testing: Why Quality Assurance Matters
Why Software Testing Is Essential for Quality Assurance
How Accessibility Testing Impacts the Library of Congress
What To Consider When Designing for People Who Are Blind
BARD Mobile: Testing and Supported Features
Summary


Why Software Testing Is Essential for Quality Assurance

Testing of the software

This happened recently, and the client decided to use our services before signing off. We found 14 high-priority bugs, which had to be pulled into a new development sprint.

It took an additional two weeks for the apps to be fixed and once completed,we completed V&V-Verification and Validation testing-to ensure all the bugs were fixed before the app is released to the client. Our client was thrilled that she was not left to deal with these bugs after the release of the three apps.

How Accessibility Testing Impacts the Library of Congress

There is also an art to testing when you are testing for the Library of Congress, National Library Service for the for the Blind and Print Disabled (NLS), Library of Congress, BARD website using an Androidphone or tablet. To be successful, youtube sensitive to the fact that many individuals who are blindbelieve all testing should be done by the blindforthe “pure blind experience.”

As accessibility testers, we understand and want to be sensitive to this point, but blindness is not an absolute. We test for low vision, no vision and color blindness. We also test for hearing impairments and deafness, motor and developmental disabilities and light induced epilepsy. Individuals who have visual impairments often have a secondary disability so testing for only one thing is not comprehensive.

What To Consider When Designing for People Who Are Blind

Software testing

We do believe in having User Test panels that provide valuable information as to how a person who is blind would use an app differently that a sighted person and incorporate User Test panels into our testing process.

We also learned about blind etiquette, being sensitive to the language we use and taking another person's perspective. Below, I have attached several links about blind etiquette that we found helpful.

BARD Mobile: Testing and Supported Features

Our testing was not only on the BARD Mobile, currently in development, but included testing concurrently with a braille refreshable display like the ones by Freedom Scientificand Humanware and using JAWS, and ZoomText.

BARD Mobilewas not designed and easily supported but Google has now added Braille Back to Android phones and should be more easily supported.

Android Accessibility Questions and Answers

Summary

The art of software testing is a complex and ever-changing field. As technology advances, so too do the methods and tools used to test software applications. At its core, the goal of testing remains the same: to ensure that software works as intended and meets the needs of its users.

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https://iteratorstesting.com/blog/pdf-accessibility PDF Accessibility 2022-08-12T11:27:00+00:00 2022-10-27T11:41:14+00:00 Jill Willcox https://iteratorstesting.com/

PDFs that are not properly formatted can be difficult or even impossible for people with disabilities to access. PDFs that are not tagged correctly can also be challenging to navigate. Additionally, image-based PDFs (PDFs that are essentially just pictures of documents) are generally not accessible at all.

PDF remediation is the process of making a PDF more accessible. This can involve adding tags, alt text, and other metadata to make the PDF more navigable and understandable for people who use screen readers. PDF remediation can also involve converting an image-based PDF into a more accessible format.

Again, PDF accessibility is essential because it ensures that everyone can access and understand PDF documents. PDF accessibility guidelines and best practices can help you create accessible PDFs.

Why PDF Accessibility Is Important

PDF accessibility is an important step towards making your entire website ADA (Americans With Disabilities Act) compliant, which means it can be accessed by people with disabilities. The ADA was signed into law in 1990 to guarantee that people with disabilities have the same opportunities as everyone else in the U.S.

If your website is not ADA compliant, you run the risk of facing a liability-related lawsuit. You’re also missing out on potential customers or clients if you can’t deliver an accessible PDF to certain visitors to your website.

In This Article
PDF Accessibility
Why PDF Accessibility Is Important
PDFs and Accessibility
PDF Accessibility Guidelines
Creating Accessible PDFs
PDF Remediation
Remediating Image-Based PDFs
PDF Tagging
Adobe, Acrobat, and PDF - What's The Difference?
PDFs vs. Accessible PDFs
PDF Accessibility Testing
PDF Accessibility Guidelines and Best Practices
Differences Between PDF Remediation And Running An App Using Acrobat For Compliance
Making Your PDFs More Accessible: Summary
FAQs
What is a PDF?
What is an accessible PDF?
Why is PDF accessibility important?
What is PDF remediation?
Why is PDF remediation necessary?
Can I remediate PDFs myself?
How much does it cost to make PDF content accessible?
What are PDF accessibility guidelines and best practices?
What services does Iterators offer?

PDFs and Accessibility

Pdfs and accessibility

PDFs that are not properly formatted can be difficult or even impossible for people with disabilities to access. PDFs that are not tagged correctly can also be challenging to navigate. Additionally, image-based PDFs (PDFs that are essentially just pictures of documents) are generally not accessible at all.

PDF remediation is the process of making a PDF more accessible. This can involve adding tags, alt text, and other metadata to make the PDF more navigable and understandable for people who use screen readers. PDF remediation can also involve converting an image-based PDF into a more accessible format.

Again, PDF accessibility is essential because it ensures that everyone can access and understand PDF documents. PDF accessibility guidelines and best practices can help you create accessible PDFs.

PDF Accessibility Guidelines

There are a few different sets of guidelines that can be used to ensure a PDF is accessible. One option is the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG). WCAG is a set of international standards for web accessibility.

Another option is the PDF/UA standard. PDF/UA is a set of international standards for PDF accessibility.

Following these guidelines can help you create an accessible PDF. However, it is worth noting that not all guidelines need to be followed in order to create an accessible PDF.

Creating Accessible PDFs

Creating accessible pdfs

Creating an accessible PDF is often a multi-step process. The first step is to create the document in a format that can be easily converted into a PDF. This could be a Microsoft Word document, an Excel spreadsheet, or even a plain text file.

Once the document has been created, it can then be converted into a PDF. There are a few different ways to convert a document into a PDF. One option is to use Adobe Acrobat. Another option is to use a free online PDF converter.

Important note: Neither of these options guarantees that the converted PDF will meet accessibility standards. For best results, we recommend working with document remediation specialists. If this is something you'd like to discuss with one of our accessibility professionals, we'd welcome a conversation!

PDF Remediation

PDF remediation is the process of repairing a PDF so that it is accessible. This process can be time consuming and tricky, depending upon the content in the PDF file and whether you have access to the source file. There are all kinds of PDF remediation tools and plug-ins available that will enable you to make a PDF accessible yourself, but using one of these won’t necessarily make the document completely accessible.

However, one big step towards PDF accessibility is adding tags to the PDF file.

Remediating Image-Based PDFs

Image based pdfs

Some PDFs contain nothing but scanned images of text. This can happen when a document is scanned and automatically converted into a PDF so that it can be shared with another person easily.

Image-based PDFs are considered inaccessible because these types of documents cannot be tagged. Instead, it’s necessary to use optical character recognition (OCR) software that will convert them into text so they can be read and understood by screen reader users. It also makes the PDF editable and searchable.

PDF Tagging

Tags add coding to each piece of content found within a PDF so that the document develops structure elements and can be understood by people with disabilities. For example, every image in a PDF will receive its own tag, as will headings, paragraphs, lists, and more.

This tag structure is very similar to HTML coding and describes what each component of the PDF is so that a user with a disability can follow the flow of the document and understand what each piece of content is about. Screen reader technology reads these tags and describes to the user what each part of the document is about.

Proper tagging is not the end of the story, however. It’s an important step towards making a PDF accessible, but tagged PDFs that contain a structure tree are not always considered 100% accessible.

There are other aspects of document accessibility that must be taken into consideration to create a truly accessible PDF. This includes properly defined document language, a large enough font size, color contrast, metadata, font embedding, and bookmarks used in conjunction with meticulous tagging.

An added bonus to hosting tagged PDFs on your site is that they can help improve search engine optimization for your site, helping it rank higher in search results so customers can find you.

Adobe, Acrobat, and PDF - What's The Difference?

Adobe acrobat and pdf

Adobe is the company that created the well-known Adobe Acrobat software. Adobe Acrobat is a software program that can be used to create, view, and edit PDFs. It is the industry standard for creating and editing PDFs. However, it is important to note that Adobe Acrobat is not the same thing as a PDF. A PDF is a file format, while Adobe Acrobat is a software program.

PDFs and accessibility often go hand-in-hand because PDFs can be created in a way that makes them accessible to people with disabilities. However, not all PDFs are accessible. It is important to check the accessibility of a PDF before using it.

There are many different ways to create PDFs. Adobe Acrobat is just one option. PDFs can also be created using other software programs, such as Microsoft Word or Excel.

PDFs vs. Accessible PDFs

Not all PDFs are accessible. An accessible PDF is a PDF that has been specifically designed to be accessible to people with disabilities. Accessible PDFs often include features such as proper tagging, alt text, and other metadata. Accessible PDFs can also be created in a variety of ways, including using Adobe Acrobat or other PDF tools.

Finally, the PDF should be tested to ensure that it is accessible. This can be done using a screen reader or by checking the PDF against accessibility guidelines.

PDF Accessibility Testing

Pdf accessibility testing

After a PDF has been created, it is important to test it to ensure that it is accessible. In addition to checking the PDF against accessibility guidelines, the best way to do this is to use a screen reader.

Screen readers are software programs that can be used to read text aloud. They are often used by people who are blind or have low vision. There are a variety of different screen readers available, such as JAWS, NVDA, and VoiceOver.

PDF Accessibility Guidelines and Best Practices

Ideally, when creating a source document to convert into a PDF, accessibility best practices should be followed. To give an example, let’s say you’re creating a document using Microsoft Word that will be converted to a PDF and made available on your website. Some of the accessibility best practices when creating the document can include:

  • Keeping a lot of white space in between columns of text, which is helpful to people with low vision or sensory or cognitive disabilities
  • Using high contrast between text and the background, such as making the text black against a white background
  • Avoiding lots of graphics on one page, and conveying information about those images in the text of the document
  • Keeping the text font size at 10 point or higher

If the document is created so that it is accessible in its native format, then you must convert it to a PDF in a way that preserves its accessibility.

Differences Between PDF Remediation And Running An App Using Acrobat For Compliance

Pdf remediation and running an app

The read-out-loud function in Acrobat is not the same as a true text-to-speech assistive technology tool and does not interact with the content in the same way that a JAWS or NVDA screen reader will.

An article from Adobe explains the difference between the read-out-loud feature using the content tree versus true assistive technology tools using the tag tree. The first paragraph is relevant: https://www.adobe.com/accessibility/products/acrobat/pdf-repair-repair-tags.html.

If you want to replicate the end user's experience, we recommend this free download of NVDA. It is an open-source and free-to-use screen reader created by NV Access. About 20-25% of screen reader users globally use NVDA, and it operates similarly to JAWS (the number 1 most popular screen reading tool, which costs about $1000 for a license).

When you use the NVDA screen reader, it will announce the different elements allowing the user to tab through the heading structure, interact with the URL links, and navigate freely around the document.

To put it plainly, the assistive technology tools built for people with disabilities are much more sophisticated than the Adobe built-in read-out-loud feature.

Making Your PDFs More Accessible: Summary

PDFs can be very accessible, but they need to be properly formatted and tagged. You can assess the accessibility of your PDFs using Adobe Acrobat Reader or a third-party accessibility checker. To make your PDFs more accessible, you can add tags, markup images, and other metadata. You can also convert image-based PDFs into a more accessible format.

If you need help making your PDFs more accessible, Iterators LLC offers PDF remediation services. Contact us today to learn more about our PDF remediation services.

PDF Accessibility Resources

FAQs

What is a PDF?

As stated, a PDF—the abbreviation for Portable Document Format—is the universal type of file used so that anyone can open and view a document on the web or as an attachment in an email without the software that was used to create the source file. You can think of it as a perfect reproduction of the original document right down to the pixel that can be viewed by any type of device.

Chances are no matter what kind of business you operate, you’re sending or receiving documents in the PDF format or making them available on your website. Marketing brochures, invoices, white papers, user guides, and other documents can all be made into PDFs.

There are many types of software used to create source documents that can be converted into PDFs. Microsoft Word, Microsoft Powerpoint, and Adobe InDesign are just a few examples.

The Adobe software company developed the PDF in 1993. Adobe Acrobat is the family of software developed by Adobe to allow users to view, edit, create, and manage PDFs. Most computers and devices come standard with Acrobat Reader, which allows the user to open and view a standard PDF.

The Acrobat Pro version of the software also allows you to check PDFs for accessibility and correct at least some of the issues that are making the document inaccessible.

What is an accessible PDF?

Accessible means "able to be reached or entered."

An accessible PDF is a PDF that can be read and accessed by people with vision impairments such as blindness, color blindness, and cognitive impairment. Vision-impaired people may use assistive technology that allows them to read a PDF document using a text-to-speech screen reader or software that provides a Braille printout of the content in the PDF. Making a PDF accessible gives them the ability to access and comprehend the PDF’s copy and images.

Why is PDF accessibility important?

PDF accessibility is important because it ensures that everyone can access and understand PDF documents. PDF accessibility guidelines and best practices can help you create accessible PDFs.

What is PDF remediation?

PDF remediation is the process of making a PDF more accessible. This can involve adding metadata and tags to links and other document properties to make the PDF more navigable and understandable. To make a PDF more accessible, it may be necessary to convert an image-based PDF into another form.

Why is PDF remediation necessary?

It's the law that all content on a website must be readable by people with disabilities. If your organization is part of government, education, or healthcare or a commercial business selling goods or services, it's vital to provide accessible PDF content or you may face a discrimination lawsuit.

Can I remediate PDFs myself?

There are all kinds of tools and software available that claim to make PDF content accessible. Acrobat also has a built-in accessibility checker to help create an accessible PDF.

The problem is, unless you’re highly skilled using PDF remediation tools and the software that created the native document (such as a Word file) that was converted into a PDF, we recommend handing the remediation process over to a software testing company that offers PDF remediation services. Their testing team knows the proper techniques for WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines.)

Also, if your organization's website has a lot of PDF documents, it can be extremely time consuming to remediate them all into an accessible form.

Making a PDF accessible can be a complex and overwhelming task, depending upon the content in the document. One recommendation is to make the PDF in question an HTML page on your website because it is often easier to make web content accessible versus a PDF.

Unless you have access to the source files and are highly skilled in using a variety of PDF checkers and accessibility tools, we recommend working with a testing company that offers PDF remediation services. A trained team knows the proper techniques for WCAG, tag structure, and other digital accessibility tools to remediate the PDF(s).

How much does it cost to make PDF content accessible?

The cost of remediating PDFs depends upon the number of PDFs that have to be checked and remediated, and whether the source file for each document is available. A reputable testing company can provide an estimate for your project.

What are PDF accessibility guidelines and best practices?

There are many PDF accessibility guidelines and best practices that can help you create fully accessible PDFs. Some of these include adding tags to the pdf content, including links and forms, and other metadata to make the PDF more navigable and understandable. You can also convert image-based PDFs into a more accessible format.

What services does Iterators offer?

Iterators offers Section 508 remediation services to create accessible PDF documents. Email us at info@iteratorstesting.com and include the subject PDF Remediation.

Please include your name and contact information with the number of PDF documents you want remediated. We'll be happy to discuss this service with you and provide a quote and timeline.

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https://iteratorstesting.com/blog/pdf-remediation-software PDF Accessibility Remediation Software: Iterators' Best Practice 2022-07-13T12:02:00+00:00 2022-10-27T11:51:06+00:00 David Willcox https://iteratorstesting.com/

PDF Accessibility with Equidox

There are many types of PDF remediation software. We decided to use Equidox and are happy with our decision. First, we are software testers also and they were happy when we told them about some software bugs and fixed them during a recent upgrade. There are always software bugs to find, and their willingness to resolve these issues was essential to us in selecting a vendor.

Pdf remediation software In This Article
PDF Accessibility Remediation Software: Iterators' Best Practice
PDF Accessibility with Equidox
The Full Guide of PDF Remediation Process
How to Coupe with Remediation Software Issues
Steps to Reproduce Bug
Successful Completion of PDF Remediation Process


The Full Guide of PDF Remediation Process

As a best practice for PDF accessibility remediation software services, we ask our customers to provide the PDFs to be remediated. This ensures that all the desired fonts are configured correctly. Often clients create a document with many individuals contributing to the finished project, so it is not unusual for the text to change during the remediation process, even though we cannot change the documents once the remediation is done.

Once we receive the document, we import the document into the PDF remediation software. The software provides several options: Home, Import documents, Notifications for when documents are ready to export, Settings, Help, and Sign Out. The settings feature creates groups and labels for the documents. Different groups are used for different clients. Documents can be found by sorting on different fields such as imported data, the date, the owner of the document, the filing date, or the label created in the settings.

How to Coupe with Remediation Software Issues

Sometimes there is an incompatibility in the document being remediated and it seems the remediation does not work. As accessibility testers certified by DHS, we can determine if the remediation software is the issue or if the document itself has an issue that will need to be fixed by the client so that the remediation can continue to the professional output.

There is also a help screen to explain additional features. Equidox does have additional tools that are not a part of the base software package. Below is an example of the bug report we sent to our contact for an advanced feature. We also recorded a video so that they could see the details described in the bug report.

Steps to Reproduce Bug

Pdf remediation software service

00:00, Launch page

01:16, Make sure that the source is custom

01:18, make sure the custom text matches the text in the pdf until the first link

01:26, make new zones for text between the links and after the second link

01:58, make sure the custom text for the text zones and link zones match what is in the respective chunk of the pdf

02:55, Click "preview this page"

02:58, BUG: the text is broken up between text and links as all separate lines in Accessible Export Preview

03:07, go back to the editor

03:08, merge the zones to make them be the same line

03:21, click "preview this page"

03:24, BUG: the text zones after the first link do not render, and links are together on the same line as the footer image in Accessible Export Preview

Desired Result

  • Content should all render on the same line if merged

Actual Result

  • Accessible export preview is inaccessible due to Content that does not stay on the same line and if merged, only shows the first zone, and the links render on separate lines

Successful Completion of PDF Remediation Process

During the remediation process we ensure that alt text is provided for all meaningful images. Decorative images should have blank alt text. We can then export our document and confirm that all issues have been successfully remediated. We further check the final remediated document to confirm it looks correct and reads correctly with Screen Reading software such as JAWS.

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https://iteratorstesting.com/blog/remediation-services-faq Remediation Services FAQ 2022-06-13T11:10:00+00:00 2022-10-27T11:51:49+00:00 Jill Willcox https://iteratorstesting.com/

PDF & Document Remediation Questions Answered


Organizations often have questions about our document remediation servies. Please find answers to some of the most commonly asked questions below. And, don't hesitate to contact us for any other inquiries you may have!

Remediation Services FAQs
PDF & Document Remediation Questions Answered
To what standard do you remediate PDFs?
Do you use automated or manual remediation or a combination of the two?
Where (in what country) do you remediate PDFs?
How long does it take to remediate a PDF? Do you offer expedited service?
Do you have volume requirements, or will you remediate a small number of PDFs—like one to ten—at a time?
Please describe your process for remediating PDFs from submission by the customer to delivery of the remediated file.
Please describe your company’s security measures in transfer and handling to protect the discretion of PDF contents.
Do the remediated files you deliver include any kind of branding from your company? If so, can branding be excluded or removed?
Do you offer a quality guarantee?

1. To what standard do you remediate PDFs?

A. Typically, either Section 508 or WCAG 2.0 (AA) or a combination of both.

2. Do you use automated or manual remediation or a combination of the two?

A. We use both an AI-based software tool that recognizes many elements in a document and all remediations are reviewed and adjusted, by our employees, who are certified Trusted Testers in accessibility.

3. Where (in what country) do you remediate PDFs?

A. We are in the USA, located in Boston at 50 Milk Street.

4. How long does it take to remediate a PDF? Do you offer expedited service?

A. PDFs are all different, so time is relative. You sent forms that are straight forward and a quick turn-around can be provided. Once we see the project we can estimate the job and if expedited services are required.

5. Do you have volume requirements, or will you remediate a small number of PDFs—like one to ten—at a time?

A. No, we do not have volume requirements.

6. Please describe your process for remediating PDFs from submission by the customer to delivery of the remediated file.

A. We adjust our process to suit the needs of the client. We can receive documents over email, Google Drive, Office365 or other services as we are local for many of our clients. As mentioned, advance notice allows us to start immediately and we provide status either daily or weekly, depending on the size of the project. We then provide the remediated documents back to you, typically with the same file name, either over email, Google Drive, Office365, etc.

7. Please describe your company’s security measures in transfer and handling to protect the discretion of PDF contents.

A. We have either used encrypted email or password protected Google Drive or Office365.

8. Do the remediated files you deliver include any kind of branding from your company? If so, can branding be excluded or removed?

A. No, we do not include our branding on the remediated documents.

9. Do you offer a quality guarantee?

A. Yes, we stand behind our work. Clients provide the PDFs to remediate, therefore, it's important the PDFs are checked and signed off on by the client before the remediation process occurs. It's also important to understand that PDFs cannot be changed once they are remediated. If for example, edits are wanted by the client, after the remediation is completed, the document needs to be re-remediated and is charged for the additional service.

10. What certifications does your company hold pertaining to document accessibility/PDF remediation?

A. We are certified by the Department of Homeland Security as Trusted Testers. See attached capability statement.

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https://iteratorstesting.com/blog/document-remediation The Definition Of Document Remediation Is Removing Barriers For Individuals With Disabilities 2022-06-02T10:35:00+00:00 2022-10-27T11:52:17+00:00 Jill Willcox https://iteratorstesting.com/

What is the document remediation?

The definition of document remediation can easily be explained by removing barriers for individuals with disabilities. Section 508 references software with the main idea that everything from signage to bank statements, to warning signs, and information on websites and electronic data, needs to be Section 508 compliant.

As Trusted Testers, certified by the Department of Homeland Security, we know that no widget that you place on your website will find the issues that need to be found for compliant documents. We have used document remediation software countless times and will share the knowledge we've picked up.

Document remediation process In This Article
The Definition Of Document Remediation Is Removing Barriers For Individuals With Disabilities
What is the document remediation?
PDFs Creation
The Remediation Process: What to Start?
Completion of the Remediation Process


PDFs Creation

How to Create a PDFs to keep some built-in accessibility and reduce extra work in the remediation process.

1. Document remediators typically are given a PDF from their client for the remediation process. Remediators don't typically provide the PDF creation because if the client makes a spelling error or format issue mistake or a change is made during the process, the document needs to be remediated again. Therefore, our clients sign off on the document before we remediate it.

2. Every computer will create a different PDF. We've found creating PDFs in MS Word. Using the PDF feature, click on the radio button that says "best for electronic distribution and accessibility (uses Microsoft online service.) This process allows the PDF to retain some of the accessibility features stripped away when you initially create a new PDF. See the image below”

document-remediation-PDFs-creation

3. It's also essential to use a font that MS Word, or any other computer program supports because if the font is not supported, the remediation will not be successful. This is only found out after the document is remediated and the remediator is confirming it’s an ADA compliant document. Below shows the results of remediating a document when the font is not supported.

Document remediation fonts

4. Finally, if there are images in the document you are remediating, you may need to compress the images. We recently completed the pdf remediation for a visual arts center and remediated brochures and press releases from 1985 until the present day. The images of the original PDF were very large and unable to be uploaded to the software program. As a best practice and technology to compress the images it’s a smart choice.

The Remediation Process: What to Start?

Once the document is produced, you are ready to start the remediation process. First, you can upload your document into the pdf remediation software program you use. Depending on how large the document is will determine how long the import takes and the pdf remediation software program you use.

The mediation process works once the document is uploaded. H1 – H6 tags are used to define the headings in the document. Tx is identifying that the area only has text. There is also a heading LNK to identify a link within the text box.

Here is an example of how the remediation process appears while remediating the document by adding the HTML tags. In this example, there is the creation of H3 tags, representing a title in this document, a text box, tagged as TX and a link, tagged as LNK to identify the different attributes of the document.

Remediation process

Completion of the Remediation Process

While completing the remediation process you will often find images in the documents and must determine if they are meaningful or decorative. It should be evident that placing a character in an alt-text field such as a period and saving the document is not compliant, no matter what anyone tells you. The text provides additional information that would be lost on an individual with a visual impairment, if not described with alt-text.

In this example, we remediated the user guide for our client, who created the Hydrow rowing machine. This image is in the user guide and with no alt-text an individual who has low vision or no vision would be confused. With alt-text, in this case HYDROW Diagram explains the image.

Remediation process comleation

It does take a little time to understand all the rules but it’s not hard. Just remember document remediation can easily be explained by removing barriers for individuals with disabilities.

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https://iteratorstesting.com/blog/test-strategy-vs-test-plan Test Strategy vs Test Plan: What’s the Difference? 2022-05-05T19:02:00+00:00 2022-12-01T08:50:23+00:00 Jill Willcox https://iteratorstesting.com/

Test Plan vs Test Strategy

As a software tester, you may find yourself tasked with writing two documents that sound very similar: test strategy and test plan.

Both of these are important documents that software testers prepare before beginning a project, but each serves a different purpose. And knowing the difference can be useful so that you can understand how a client's testing project will be carried out. Writing a test plan and test strategy is an important skill that every software tester should master—and knowing the difference between test plan vs test strategy documents can come in handy when you're interviewing at a software testing firm.

Here's everything you need to know about the two documents.

Test Strategy vs Test Planning In This Article
Test Strategy vs Test Plan: What’s the Difference?
Test Plan vs Test Strategy
What is a Test Plan?
What is a Test Strategy?
Components of Test Strategy Documents
Fields to be Filled Out in a Test Strategy Document
Difference Between Test Strategy vs Test Plan
Test Strategy vs Test Plan: Know the Difference
FAQs
Q. How do you write a test plan and a test strategy?
Q. Why is it important to know the difference between a test plan and test strategy?
Q. Is the mobile application test plan document differ from the software test plan?


What is Test Plan?

A test plan is defined as a document created by the software testing firm that outlines the various actions to be executed during the testing process, including mobile app testing, functional testing, manual testing, and automated testing. Test plans answer the "how" questions about a software testing project, such as:

  • How are we going to test the software?
  • How will the testing occur?
  • How many cycles of testing will there be?
  • How will the testing be coordinated?

You can think of a test plan as an outline of your software testing project, as it describes the assets, approach, and the time table for each portion of the testing. It will detail the features to be tested, the test strategies and techniques that the software testing team will use, and more.

Test plans are fluid in nature and can vary from one software product to another. They're important because they help software testing firms and their clients stay on the same page in regards to the type of work that will be carried out.

Test plans are usually written by test managers or test leads based on input from team members. Quality software test plans contain several fields to be filled out, such as the following:

  • Introduction: a brief introduction of the software application to be tested
  • Purpose and scope: the overall purpose and scope of the testing
  • Testing strategy: the testing approach or approaches that will be used
  • Features to be tested: describes what specific features of the software will be tested
  • Features not to be tested: exactly the opposite; lists the features of the software that will not be tested
  • Test deliverables: the different types of test findings to be reported such as test cases and test results
  • Environmental needs: any environment-specific need for the project
  • Responsibilities: lists the team members and other resources involved in the testing project and their responsibilities
  • Training: the training requirements of specific resources
  • Tools: list of tools used if applicable

To summarize, a test plan goes into great detail about the testing project and how it will be carried out.

What is a Test Strategy?

A test strategy is a more high-level document that outlines the project in broader terms, usually including a set of instructions or guidelines about how the testing will be carried out. Where the test plan goes into a lot of detail about a project, the test strategy gives a 50,000 foot view of it. Yet it is needed to clearly define the exact software testing approach and testing objectives of the software application.

The test strategy addresses the "what" questions surrounding the testing project, such as:

  • What are the high level test objectives? Or, what is it we're trying to accomplish?
  • What types of testing will we do such as functional, aggression, etc.?
  • What are some of the risks and mitigations to those risks?
  • What is the defining point in which testing is done on the project, or how we will recognize when testing can be considered complete?
  • What are the things that we are going to test?

Your test strategy has to be one single document, whereas there may be multiple test plan documents to support that strategy.

It is tailored to your audience - stakeholders and senior management team you need approval from. And unlike a test plan, which can be modified during the course of a project, the test strategy is a static document that doesn't change.

Components of Test Strategy Documents:

There are usually four components or sections of a test strategy:

1. The scope; what are the things within the scope of testing and the things not in the scope

2. Test approach - what types of testing will be conducted

3. Environments - where are we going to be doing our testing?

4. Key deliverables - your clients want to know what are they paying for

Filleds to be Filled Out in a Test Srtategy Document:

  • Introduction – A brief introduction to the purpose and scope of the document
  • Standards to use – The different standards or set of guidelines to be followed
  • Risks and Mitigations – The different risks associated with testing and their mitigation strategies
  • Entry Criteria – The pre-requisites that must be performed before testing can start
  • Exit Criteria – The criteria defining when the testing can be stopped
  • Test design techniques – The test design techniques to be used like – equivalence partitioning, boundary value analysis, etc.
  • Test environment – This defines which hardware/3rd party is needed to fulfill the requirements, of where the product is going to be tested
  • Configuration management of testware – Specification of the right version of testware for testing
  • Test process improvement – The approaches to use for improving the test process
  • Approvals – The persons approving the test strategy document

Difference Between Test Strategy vs Test Plan

Still confused? It can be useful to see the differences between a test plan and test strategy document at a glance:

Test plan: Specific to a particular project

Test strategy: Usually for a complete organization

Test plan: Prepared by the test lead of test manager

Test strategy: Usually prepared by the project manager

Test plan: Describes the testing activities in detail such as the techniques used, schedule, and resources

Test strategy: Describes the high-level test design techniques to be used such as environment specifics

Test plan: outlines features to be tested, components not to be tested, approach to testing, pass-fail criteria, and more

Test strategy: includes scope, test approach, testing tools, test environment specs, and more

Test plan: Is a fluid document that can be changed or updated

Test strategy: Static document that is not modified

Test Strategy vs Test Plan: Know the Difference

Test questions

Many people get these two documents confused, but it's important to know the difference between a test plan and a test strategy because both set expectations for the testing team and the client. With practice, you can become a pro at writing both and knowing what information each one covers, boosting your confidence when you outline your testing plan to clients.

FAQs

Q. How do you write a test plan and a test strategy?

A. It doesn't matter which of these documents you write first; what matters is that each one is uniques and tailored for the project and client at hand. You don't want to copy a test plan and test strategy from one client to another.

You can think of a test strategy as helping to plan the test procedure while the test plan is then used to carry out the testing process.

Q. Why is it important to know the difference between a test plan and test strategy?

A. Knowing the difference between test plan and test strategy documents helps set expectations for your team and your clients before each software testing project.

Q. Is the mobile application test plan document differ from the software test plan?

A. The mobile application test plan document does differ from the software test plan. The main difference is that mobile devices have different hardware, operating systems, and form factors than traditional software. As a result, the mobile app testing process must take into account these variations and plan accordingly. Additionally, mobile applications often rely on external services and connections that must be tested to ensure proper functioning. Therefore, the mobile application test plan document must include specific steps to test mobile apps on different mobile devices and any external services that are integrated.

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https://iteratorstesting.com/blog/software-testing-case-study-examples Software Testing Client Project Case Study 2022-04-21T21:30:00+00:00 2022-12-01T08:04:40+00:00 Jill Willcox https://iteratorstesting.com/

We are often asked what software testing is. The video below shares a solid definition of the term.

But we thought a software testing project case study might be helpful to better understand what software testers do on a typical day. This includes testing software, writing requirement documents for our clients, and creating user guides to ensure compliance for our clients to use for quality assurance and auditing purposes.


Iterators LLC was hired to complete accessibility testing for a few projects for the Library of Congress (LOC).

Accessibility testing is required on all government websites, with Section 508 and WCAG 2.2 requirements used. To become a Trusted Tester an employee must complete the DHS Trusted Tester online training course requirements and pass the DHS Section 508 Trusted Tester Certification Exam of Homeland Security in Accessibility, and we are in a unique position to help on this project.

We cross-train all our employees so that we can work on several projects at one time or several different aspects of a project to complete the work and reduce the cost to our clients.

Our first project assigned by LOC was testing their new braille feature on BARD Mobile for Android. We were tasked with testing the braille feature with several refreshable braille displays.

During our testing, we used the Orbit Reader 20, and two different braille displays from Freedom Focus 14 and Freedom Focus 40. There are plans to use other refreshable displays such as Humanware, but this testing has not occurred yet. We needed to test refreshable braille displays and their use in tandem with Google BrailleBack and Google TalkBack.

This work was to ensure that all hardware worked as expected with the apps we were testing. For this testing, we had to complete functional testing, smoke testing, exploratory testing and had a user panel to ensure we caught all issues that a visually impaired individual might experience while using the app.

Initially, our client was unsure if we would find any bugs and hesitant to have us enter bugs into Bugzilla as they stated the software was “complicated”. Bugzilla is a web-based general-purpose bug tracking system and not unlike other bug tracking systems we use every day such as Jira, TestRails, PractiTest, and Click-Up.

Testing was completed over several agile sprints with many significant software testing bugs found. Our testing had us test against the National Library Service requirements document. Next, we had to create an up-to-date user manual. While the manual had been updated several times, the testing had not been.

For example, when downloading a book or magazine from the Now Reading section of the mobile app, the download would end up at the bottom of the page. For years, the user guide had listed the download being at the top of the page once the document was downloaded.

Our testing team, on several occasions, said this was an error in the documentation and that the download ends up at the bottom of the page. This was corrected in the user document and sent to the development team to fix per the requirement document.

Over the next several months, we reported 30 high priority bugs with about half fixed at this point. We have encouraged our client to test in an agile fashion because once the development team is finished, it’s harder to get these bugs fixed.

Our bugs were reported and based on the requirement document used to create the software. Lastly, the user guide had to be rewritten to reflect the app's behavior and general updates.

Once the app was tested and created, the user guide was sent to Communication Services to ensure the style used per other requirement documentation. This document had to be approved before being disseminated to the public. For example, how does the library determine what the Most Popular Books are, and over what period.

Once the document was returned from COS, this PDF document had to be remediated. The process of remediation is to make a PDF, create the heading for the document, alt text added to meaningful images, and decorative images either ignored or take out of the digital document altogether.

Once the remediation process is complete and validated, the document becomes ADA compliant. We then provide an accessible PDF that can be read with the use of a screen reader and create the HTML output so that the document can be added to the Library of Congress website.

You can find the current user guide we completed here: https://www.loc.gov/nls/braille-audio-reading-materials/bard-access/bard-mobile-android/#creatingfolders3.3

Case studies can be a great learning tool in software testing and project management. By looking at project case study examples, you can see how the project was planned and executed, as well as how certain tasks were managed. This can give a better understanding of what software testing involves on a daily basis. With the right software testing case studies example, software testers can hone their skills, improve project performance, and ultimately deliver better software testing results.

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https://iteratorstesting.com/blog/clutch-names-iterators-llc-as-a-top-certified-women-owned-business-for-2022 Clutch Names Iterators LLC As A Top Certified Women-Owned Business For 2022 2022-04-04T18:47:00+00:00 2022-04-04T18:55:19+00:00 Jill Willcox https://iteratorstesting.com/ “Software developed in a vacuum is rarely great—great software results from constant iteration and why we named our company Iterators five years ago. Our testers are real people working outside of the development process. We test and validate software every day, and our employees, including neurodiverse employees, get to do what they do best in a supported environment.” - Jill Wilcox, Co-Founder of Iterators.

Iterators LLC has been named a Top Certified Women-owned Business, again in 2022. (https://IteratorsTesting.com) and was built to ensure that companies do not settle for shoddy software that has not been properly tested. Iterators works on an array of software testing services for small start-ups, Enterprise software and works for local, state, and federal government.

Our team is thrilled to announce that we have recently been named a Clutch top certified women-owned business for 2022.


Women Owned

Clutch is an online review and rating platform that primarily serves the B2B industry. They spotlight leading B2B firms that might not otherwise get it with their awards and certification programs. Our team invests so much time and work into ensuring that our clients get the best possible results from their projects. Knowing that we have not only succeeded in those endeavors, but we did enough for them to award us for it also means more to us than words can express.

We express our gratitude to our clients in Boston (our home base) and beyond, without whom this award would not be possible. Our team recognizes that it takes time and effort to be able to provide enough support to make this accolade possible. They did so on our behalf is something we truly appreciate.

Discover what an award-winning service feels like by visiting our website and contacting our team today. Let’s make sure your software is the best it can be together.

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https://iteratorstesting.com/blog/accessibility-testing-tutorial Accessibility Testing 2022-03-30T07:10:00+00:00 2022-10-27T11:54:05+00:00 David Willcox https://iteratorstesting.com/

Is My Website ADA Compliant?

If you are asking this question, then your website is most likely not ADA compliant. It does take some design and care to make a site ADA compliant using the WCAG requirements.

Some items are fairly well known, such as including alt-text for any images on your website. However, other requirements are fairly specific so that your site works well with screen readers or other assistive technologies.

Also, recall that screen reader compatibility is not the only criteria to make your site ADA compliant as there are a range of disabilities that your users encounter.

For example, what if you are right-handed and your right arm is in a sling or a cast and you start using the keyboard to navigate your website? Can you perform all activities on your website if you only use a keyboard?

Note that making your website accessible can be done affordably. See the other topics in this blog for more information on next steps for you to consider.

Table of Contents:

- Is My Website ADA Compliant?
- What Is Accessibility Testing?
- How to Test Accessibility of a Website
- Accessibility Testing for Mobile Apps
- How Much Does Accessibility Testing Cost?
- What is a VPAT for Accessibility Testing?
- Why is accessibility testing required?
- Why is color contrast important for accessibility?
- How do you perform an accessibility test?
- What are accessibility testing tools?
- Frequently Asked Questions

image of different areas of disabilities

What Is Accessibility Testing?

Accessibility Testing, as related to software or a website, focuses on if the software/website meets the WCAG requirements and therefore users with a range of disabilities can access your site.

An analogy to consider is that some physical buildings are not accessible to wheelchair users if there are not ramps or elevators to allow them access to your building. Is your website like this?

For example, we were told that some students at the Perkins School for the Blind that their teachers must provide them with research for their projects because most sites on the internet are not accessible. What if your child was doing a report on Electric Cars, but none of the websites were accessible to them?

Your website should be accessible to people beyond your direct customer base.

In comparison, “Functional Testing” of software refers to if your website functions as expected. For example, if you click on “Search”, does it then perform a search. This feature might be functional, in that the feature works, but it may also be inaccessible and cannot be used by some users with disabilities. This requires “Accessibility Testing” to determine if the WCAG requirements are met.

image of accessibility related icons

How to Test Accessibility of a Website

Iterators LLC strongly recommends using a Trusted Tester for your accessibility testing. The Trusted Tester certification is a challenging program that is administered by the US Federal Government in the Department of Homeland Security to provide Section 508 and WCAG testing certification.

The principal tool used here is ANDI along with the training needed to perform the testing needed for all WCAG requirements.

Other tools are available on the internet, such as automated code checks or site reviews.

In particular, be careful with “widgets” that claim that they will make your website accessible. These can only check some accessibility issues. Some people use these as a perception that this will save money for your accessibility project. However, accessibility does not have to be a significant cost as described elsewhere in this blog.

In summary, the best approach for accessibility testing is to use a Trusted Tester that is familiar with all WCAG requirements and then use a blend of automated testing and manual testing in order to evaluate all of the requirements. This should include creating a VPAT (voluntary product accessibility template) to summarize the testing completed.

accessibility icons on keyboard

Accessibility Testing for Mobile Apps

Mobile App accessibility testing is more challenging than testing a website but can still be done affordably as part of your software development project. The WCAG requirements apply to mobile apps, and indeed for all software, and not just to websites.

The four main principles of WCAG are: Perceivable, Operable, Understandable and Robust. These principles are crucial for a mobile app for disabled and non-disabled users. It is most economical to combine accessibility testing with manual functional testing as you develop your app.

An example of some of the automated testing tools for mobile apps can be found at this Perfecto blog. However, this article does not list the manual testing that is also required in order to ensure that your app is accessible.

One reason that manual testing is needed is that accessibility requires trained judgement in addition to making sure that all of the appropriate attributes are filled in. For example, are the accessibility labels meaningful? Can a user easily avoid incorrect actions or be informed if required information is needed? Did you consider more than vision impairments as the website was tested because there are a wide range of disabilities for potential users.

How Much Does Accessibility Testing Cost?

Accessibility testing for your website or mobile app can be affordable. The “Test Left” principle should be used meaning that you should include this testing as part of the ongoing project. Waiting until the very end of the software project can lead to more costly redesigns or reworking code to overcome any issues that are found.

At Iterators LLC, we find that it is useful to allocate 5 – 10% of the development budget for both Functional and Accessibility testing. As mentioned, the full cost is reduced if these issues are found as your developers progress through the initial development or a redesign.

What is a VPAT for Accessibility Testing?

A VPAT is a report that provides a scorecard regarding how well your website, app, or software meets the accessibility requirements. VPAT stands for Voluntary Product Accessibility Template and is administered by the Information Technology Industry Council. A VPAT is required for Section 508 compliance with the US federal government, or for EN 301 549 compliance for the EU (European Union), or for the WCAG guidelines.

An example VPAT can be found for the City of Boston website. Also, see other areas of this blog for how a Trusted Tester can complete the accessibility testing effectively at a reasonable cost to your project.

Why is accessibility testing required?

This depends on who you ask.

Asking a lawyer may indicate that you can be sued if your site is not accessible. Dominos Pizza tried to avoid accessibility by taking their case to the US Supreme Court and recently lost. More importantly, if you ask a disabled person, they would greatly appreciate if your website or app were accessible.

It is of course extremely frustrating to reach a website and then find that you cannot access it due to your disability. This would be like arriving at a movie theatre and finding that you could not get into the building or watch the movie.

See this website for some “humorous” examples of locations that are inaccessible to wheelchair users. Of course, these are only humorous if you are not the person inconvenienced.

wheelchair ramp that is too steep to use

We heard a story recently from the Perkins School for the Blind in which some students could not independently complete their homework because performing research on the internet typically brings up websites that are not accessible. These students may not be your direct customer, but would you think of building a building without accessibility features?

The City of Boston summarized their position in several blogs in which they upgraded their site with more WCAG accessibility features. Another excellent article is “I Used The Web For A Day With Just A Keyboard”. You can help everyone by applying the WCAG standards to your website.

Why is color contrast important for accessibility?

Color Contrast is one of the WCAG guidelines for accessibility. It is one of the tests that has some clear guidelines, such as:

  • Contrast of typical text should be a minimum of 4.5:1
  • Contrast for large text can be a minimum of 3:1
  • Contrast in company logos does not apply because you have hopefully designed your logo effectively.

These color contrast ratios can be evaluated with several tools. We use Color Contrast available on the macOS App Store. These tools work by manually finding the foreground and background of text and providing the color contrast and if it passes the WCAG requirements.

color tool on Testimonials page of Iterators website

Color Contrast also must account for color blindness. The macOS has the ability to simulate different color blind conditions by adjusting the color scales. Activating this feature gives you the chance to see if your color scheme will still work well for all users.

macIOS color filters settings for display

How do you perform an accessibility test?

A good place to start accessibility testing is to summarize the different templates that your website is using.

Your website may have dozens or hundreds of pages, but only a few different templates. For example, a Home Page, a Blog Page, a News Page may be set up with different templates. Each of these templates can be evaluated as described below.

Next, we perform an initial audit of each page before performing a full suite of tests. This reduces the cost by providing a quick triage of the page. If there are issues to fix, then this will identify them quickly without the need for extensive testing.

The following are several of the common areas for testing:

  • Keyboard accessibility: This is our first test and it is easy to see if a website has tried to satisfy the WCAG requirements. Load the website and then start pressing the tab key on the keyboard. You should first see a Skip to Main Content link, which can be tested. Continuing to press the tab key should show you which item is currently selected. Also look for tabs that lead to invisible links.
  • Image accessibility: Most people are familiar that images need alt-text. However, “decorative” images should have an empty string as alt-text (“”). The reason for this is that there is no value to a screen reader user in announcing alt-text such as “stock photo of a family entering a bank.” The rule is that you can delete a decorative image and the user would still have all of the information that they need from your website.
  • Links: All websites have links, and are sometimes listed as “click here”, or “learn more.” It is important that each link has a descriptive name that a screen reader, or other assistive technology, can report to a user. You can still use links that say “Learn More”, but if you have multiple links, then you can provide an accessible name that is different from the visible name. This name is then used with a screen reader to provide a full description to the user.

What are accessibility testing tools?

The following are some accessibility testing tools that could be used by a general user. Note that some training is still needed in order to know which tests are needed for all of the WCAG requirements.

ANDI is a tool provided by the US federal government at no cost. The user interface is sparse, but it provides a large number of tools and information needed for accessibility testing.

For example, it will quickly list if you have several links that all have the same descriptive name, such as “Learn More.”

A11yTools is a Safari extension for macOS. The cost is reasonable at $12, and it is then used to highlight images, headings, forms, tables, and other elements that need to be examined.

For example, the images are highlighted and the alt-text is made visible so that you can quickly check if the alt-text is appropriate. A common mistake is that decorative images should actually have an empty string as alt-text.

A11yTools is a Safari extension for macOS

WAVE is also a browser extension which works with Chrome or Firefox and also provides accessibility information for images, links and other elements.

Frequently Asked Questions:

What is your exposure to the market of services for the visually impaired? Are you familiar of other players who compete with Freedom Scientific's JAWS? (And how do they distinguish themselves)

  • Freedom Scientific is undoubtedly the gold standard and an excellent product. We test with many refreshable braille displays from Freedom Scientific, Orbit, Humanware, etc. We also have employees who are legally blind and technology specialist.

When testing new products for the visually disabled, what do you try to be the most cognizant of.

  • Some in the blind community believe in the pure blind experience. This means that only blind users should complete the testing. Everyone with a visual impairment is not blind. Testing different disabilities requires different strategies and, frankly, a diversity of thought that women possess because they've often been excluded in the technology field. We excel at our work by leaving no stone unturned and working with user panels to ensure we are testing with product users.

    Decades ago, most individuals with visual impairments were blind due in part to premature births and exposure to oxygen causing blindness. With advances, this is not true today. the leading cause of visual impairments today is CVI – Cortical Vision impairment, a disorder caused by damage to the parts of the brain that process vision. Times change and strategies must change too.

Are mobile applications prevalent or considered in the visually impairment space in your line of work?

  • Yes, we consider apps in our work, but they are not mandated to be accessible, so business leaders need to make that a priority.

What would you recommend for new entrants into the software for the visually impaired to be cognizant of?

  • Basically, it's good for people to champion their own area of expertise or interest but welcomes others working towards a common goal.

What is pdf remediation?

  • PDF Remediation is the process of correcting accessibility errors that make it impossible for users with visual impairments and other disabilities to read a PDF document without the aid of remediation and a screen reader. Remediated documents are ADA compliant. Meaningful images have Alt-text added during the remediation process, and decorative images are removed.
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https://iteratorstesting.com/blog/what-is-software-testing What is Software Testing and Why is it Necessary? 2022-02-23T21:15:00+00:00 2022-10-27T13:24:06+00:00 David Willcox https://iteratorstesting.com/ According to “The Art of Software Testing” by Glenford J. Myers, 2nd Edition, 1979, “Software testing is a technical task, but it also involves some important considerations of economics and human psychology.” This is a classic textbook for software testing techniques, and it is amazing to see how much has stayed the same since that time.

The whole goal of software testing is to find bugs before your customers find them. Software bugs reflect poorly on your website or application.

Table of Contents

- What is Software Testing
- How Does Software Testing Work?
- What Is a Software Bug?
- Different Types of Software Testing
- Common Terms: Types of Testing
- Types of Software Testing
- Agile Software Testing Strategy
- Agile Software Testing Is an Important Part of the Development Cycle
- Do I Need Software Testers?
- What Kind of Training Do Software Testers Need?
- Software Testing Best Practices
- Software Testing Resources
- Software Testing Training Resources
- Software Training Books on Amazon
- Frequently Asked Questions

How does software testing work?

The Psychology of software testing is related to the idea of wanting to find software defects. It is much better for you to find a bug rather than your customers.

Our training program for software testing specifically teaches that it is good to find a bug, because new software testers are often disappointed when a defect is found. A good day for a software tester is to find a bug.

The Economics of software testing is related to how software testing can actually reduce the cost of software development. This can be counter-intuitive, but it makes sense when you remember that software testers are generally less expensive than developers. It can also be very costly to redesign software at the end of a project if a significant bug is found that requires significant development to fix.

This is related to the “Test Left” paradigm in which the software testing should occur as early in a timeline as possible, as discussed in the Agile Software Testing Strategy section.

Example: What is Software Testing?

example menu bug making end user's experience challenging


What is a software bug?

A software bug is simply a difference between an expected result and what actually happens when the software is tested. The Expected Result can come from a list of software requirements, or more often it comes from the expected behavior for an app that follows best practices.

For example, it is best for buttons to be labeled consistently, respond quickly, give feedback that an action was taken, etc. If your app differs from a typical app, then users will find the software confusing.

Example Bug: The Mother and Father data entries were stored in the wrong fields

sample software defects found by software testers


Different Types of Software Testing

There are many types of software testing. For example, Unit Testing is normally completed by developers as they add Unit Tests to their own code so that a set of expected results are verified for a set of test cases.

A simple example would be to verify that a function that adds numbers would verify that 2+2=4. Technically, this is part of Test Driven Development (TDD), which is more of a development team activity than a Quality Assurance Software Testing activity.

Therefore, many people think of software testing as User Acceptance Testing (UAT) or Software Acceptance Testing (SAT). This is considered as “final” testing at the end of a software project to do a final validation or verification (V&V). This is an important activity, but it is better and more economical to follow an Agile Software Testing Strategy as discussed in a later section.


Common Terms: Types of Testing

  • Functional Testing is done with the goal of finding functional defects. This means that a certain software function is not working as expected. Some examples that Iterators has found are a “First Name” field stores a result as a “Last Name”, or clicking on a given button leads to a crash, or an inaccurate action.
  • Regression Testing means that a previously working feature has regressed and is no longer working after a software update.
  • Manual Testing means that a software tester is manually using the software by that individual. This manual testing could be Functional Testing, Regression Testing, or any of the other testing types listed below.
  • Automated Testing means that the testing is performed by another computer program that automates the use of the software application. For example, Selenium can be used to program a set of tests for a website in order to execute the web app and compare the results to the specified requirements. Automated Testing is normally done as Automated Regression Testing because automation is generally more expensive to set up than Manual Testing, but the automation can then be run every day or after every software build and so the overall costs are reduced over time.
  • Accessibility Testing is another major area in which the bug is related to how easy the software is to use for users of all abilities. For example, some users with disabilities would use a keyboard switch or a screen reader for a website or app. Software bugs can impact the accessibility of the software product for some users. WCAG provides a set of requirements for websites to be accessible. Iterators is a Trusted Tester certified by the Department of Homeland Security for accessibility testing.
  • Integration Testing or End-To-End Testing refers to doing the software test once all of the components are all put together and is most similar to how an end-user would use the software product. Testing each individual component may not find all of the errors that occur when all components are put together into a complete system or app.

Types of Software Testing

chart of types of software testing


Agile Software Testing Strategy

Agile refers to a project management strategy often applied to software development projects. For our purpose, a simplified way of thinking about this is to emphasize that each part of the software should be tested at the time they are developed rather than waiting until the end of the project. Good Agile testing can be lower cost and much lower risk than the “Waterfall” strategy of waiting until the end of a project to perform the testing.

For example, assume that a project takes 6 months to complete. A development sprint could be completed every 2 weeks by several developers. Perhaps one day of software testing is done for each of these 2 weeks. This ensures that the features are actually working well and there are no regression bugs.

The alternative is to wait until the end of the project, and spend perhaps 2 weeks testing, find bugs, and then need to spend another 2 weeks or so to fix those bugs.

That can delay the release of the software product by a month, or you may need to compromise the quality of the software to meet your deadline.

Some people mistakenly think that the Test Driven Development completed by the developers are sufficient to make sure that everything is working. This needs to be balanced with manual testing to perform Integration Testing to see how the software works with all of the components completed.


Agile Software Testing is an important part of the development cycle

agile testing process

Do I need Software Testers?

Short answer is “Usually.” Let’s go through a few scenarios to consider.

If you are creating a relatively simple website, then perhaps not.

If you are creating a responsive website suitable for desktop and mobile browsers perhaps with some animation elements, then yes.

But won’t your web developer test the site? Of course, but it is often beneficial to have trained software testers also test the site. At Iterators, we have a device farm with different mobile devices, we test different browsers, window sizes to test the responsive break points, check the animations.

We always find issues, such as images that do not display correctly on certain window sizes, or animations that are not compatible with some browsers. It is more economical to hire a well-qualified software tester than to expect your developer to spend extra time testing all of these configurations.

What if you are developing a mobile app? The answer is definitely Yes!!

In fact, it is best to test with the Agile strategy of testing new features every Sprint, which could be every week or two. Iterators has had a few customers that have had their apps fail when tested at the very end. One customer had a “guarantee” by the developer to fix all problems that were found in the last 3 weeks of testing. After multiple rounds of testing, the app was still not functional, and the app was abandoned. Reduce your risk and your overall costs by performing testing during development.

It is again more cost effective to have testers test and developers develop. The other approach is for the client to test the app, because “we all use apps.”

However, there is a great benefit to using trained software testers to find those examples that your end users will end up complaining about on the launch of your app.

Software Development Life Cycle - When to hire quality software testers


What kind of training do software testers need?

At Iterators, we have a custom training program that incorporates several useful components. We include the ISTQB Foundation Level training for software testers. This has several valuable techniques for software testing and some specialized terminology.

We also find the exploratory testing approach useful. A good introduction to this it is the Explore It! Book by Elisabeth Hendrickson.

Many people feel that software testing means writing extensive Test Cases. However, the real goal is to find bugs. Iterators uses an exploratory approach with enough structure to make sure that all areas are examined.

The advantage of exploratory testing is to allow an experienced tester to find the best areas to test. For example, if defects are found in a certain area, then it needs even more testing. Finally, we include a good amount of practical examples because there is no substitute for actual experience.


Software Testing Best Practices

The most significant best practice is to make sure the software testers are included in your project. Some developers will include QA software testers on their team, and some are more individual contributors. The key thing to remember is that the Product Owner is responsible for the overall product quality and should decide on the strategy for software testing.

Iterators can provide an independent view of the testing needs. We have had some developers state “it should only take 50 hours to test at the end of a project.” These same projects have then had to scramble to get functioning software to deliver.

A better approach is to follow the Agile methodology in which new features and testing are done at the same time so that new features are found to be functional at the time they are created.

Check out our software testing project case study here.


Software Testing Resources

There are many software testing resources available on the internet. Here are some of the Top 10 links for software testing in different categories. There may not be 10 in each category, but they are all good resources.

Software Testing Training Resources:

Software training books on Amazon:

Frequently Asked Questions:

What do you find are the current biggest challenges with software services for the visually impaired?

  • Most websites are not accessible to individuals with a visual impairment. Individuals with visual impairments are not all blind. Some have low vision, color blindness, or multiple disabilities, including blindness. If a website is not accessible, it prevents users from using it.

    We have a colleague teaching technology to students with visual impairments. As part of their curriculum, they are assigned to create a report such as one of the fifty states. However, the websites are not accessible. While the students are taking a technology course and are to use their technical training to create the report, they cannot find an accessible website to complete the project. The instructors have to search and find a site that is accessible to complete the assignment.

Aside from adoption, what user difficulties do you find are hard to overcome?

  • Iterators LLC is in our fifth year as an inclusive software testing company, women-owned and managed. As software testers we are certified Trusted Testers certified by the Department of Homeland Security. We test against blindness, low vision, color blindness, other visual impairments, deafness or hearing impairment, motor and developmental disabilities, elder status, light-induced epilepsy, and more. Many businesses know that their websites must be accessible, but often decide to comply only after a penalty has been charged.

    We branched out and secured an award from the federal government and currently work on several projects for the Library of Congress. I leave a link here: https://hbr.org/2020/03/do-your-di-efforts-include-people-with-disabilities of what I believe is an important article from Harvard Business review. "Although 90% of companies claim to prioritize diversity, only 4% consider disability in those initiatives, according to a report from the Return on Disability Group."

Why is a quality assurance tester needed on a software development team?

  • Software testing does not need to be completed by the development team. Ideally, ideally there should be independent software testers working in tandem with a development team. If you only have testing completed from the development team, too many issues are lost, and the client may sign off on a project that has had insufficient testing completed.

Why is software testing important?

  • Without software testing, users would not have a good experience with the software they use every day. With a lack of security, accounts can be hacked, causing a security breach such as users' passwords being compromised or other critical data compromised. We work in any industry, from small startups to large corporations and all, have software bugs that reduce the performance of the software. As testers on Enterprise software, we know when software is new, untested, and brittle, there are many bugs, and we test the software in an unfriendly environment to find the bugs.

What is a bug in software testing?

  • Software bugs are coding issues where the software doesn't act the way it is expected to and, therefore, doesn't meet the client's requirements. For example, a user wants to log into a new app. The user has read and agreed to the terms of service, created a user name that follows the written guidelines, set up a user name and password that follows the requirements yet cannot log into the website. That is a bug. As software testers, we test against the written criteria.

In which phase of the system life cycle is software testing performed?

  • Software testing is often performed during the later stages of the system life cycle, such as during the beta testing or acceptance testing phases. However, it is important to note that software testing can and should be performed throughout the entire development process, in order to ensure that the final product meets all customer requirements.

What is a use case in software testing?

  • A use case is a scenario that describes how a user would interact with a system to accomplish a specific goal. In software testing, use cases can be used to define test cases, which are specific sets of steps that need to be executed in order to test the functionality of a system.

    Use cases can also be used to define test data, which is the input that will be used during testing. Test data can be manually entered by the tester or generated automatically. Automated test data generation is often used in order to create large volumes of data that would be difficult to generate manually.

    Use cases can also be used to define expected results, which are the outputs that should be produced by the system under test. Expected results can be captured in the form of screenshots, logs, or other artifacts.

    Finally, use cases can also be used to define test conditions, which are the specific conditions under which a test should be executed. Test conditions can include things like environmental conditions, data conditions, or other factors that could affect the outcome of a test.
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https://iteratorstesting.com/blog/internet-explorer-11-status Internet Explorer 11 Status: Some Clients Still Use IE 2022-02-02T16:43:00+00:00 2022-02-02T18:45:46+00:00 Jill Willcox https://iteratorstesting.com/ Internet Explorer 11 Status

As of February 1, 2022

Summary

  • Internet Explorer 11 was the last update as of October 17, 2013
  • Support for Internet Explorer on most Windows 10 computers will stop as of June 15, 2022
  • IE Mode in Microsoft Edge will be supported until at least 2029

Conclusion

  • All customers are encouraged to stop using Internet Explorer and the Internet Explorer compatibility mode provided in several browsers.
  • However, the compatibility mode will still exist until at least 2029 and it is possible that some people will still have an internet explorer required website or app, or they may be use the internet explorer compatibility mode.
  • It is therefore up to customers if software testing should occur using Internet Explorer

Wikipedia Page:

Microsoft Support site, May 20, 2021

Internet Explorer (IE) 11 is the last major version of Internet Explorer. Starting June 15, 2022, the Internet Explorer 11 desktop application will no longer be supported on certain versions of Windows 10*.

Customers are encouraged to move to Microsoft Edge, which provides support for legacy and modern websites and apps. For organizations with a dependency on legacy Internet Explorer-based sites and apps, sites will need to be configured to open in Microsoft Edge using Internet Explorer (IE) mode.

Internet Explorer mode in Microsoft Edge enables backward compatibility and will be supported through at least 2029. Additionally, Microsoft will provide notice one year prior to the retirement of IE mode. Go here for a list of Microsoft Edge supported operating systems.

See the following resources for more information:

· Internet Explorer 11 end of support and IE mode announcement

· IE mode website

· IE announcement technical FAQ

· Microsoft Edge and IE Lifecycle FAQ

· Windows OS support dates

· Internet Explorer supported operating systems

· Microsoft Edge supported operating systems

* Go here for a list of supported operating systems for Internet Explorer, including versions impacted by this announcement.

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https://iteratorstesting.com/blog/efficient-exploratory-testing-for-a-large-enterprise-software-project Efficient Exploratory Testing for a Large Enterprise Software Project 2022-01-24T17:41:00+00:00 2022-02-02T18:40:50+00:00 Jill Willcox https://iteratorstesting.com/ Iterators LLC has worked on a variety of software testing projects ranging from small projects that require a few days to enterprise projects that require several months. In a series of case studies, we will delve into the following topics:

  • Manual Testing
  • Exploratory Testing vs. Test Cases vs. Agile
  • Test Cases in TestRail with Modular Organization
  • Automated Testing, Selenium, ID tags, Locators
  • Enterprise Projects

One link to explore for more information is:

When working with clients on testing projects, Iterators LLC follows guidance from two key sources:

The following case study summarizes some key points that your project should consider when you are evaluating the use of manual or automated testing techniques.

Manual Testing

It is well-known that manual testing is faster to get started, faster to identify bugs and an important part of an agile development process. Perhaps less well-known are some best practices regarding how to implement these techniques. The following outlines the progression of this particular project with more details given below:

  • Existing test cases were provided that were out of date;
  • Exploratory testing procedures were implemented; and
  • Test cases were updated in a test management system (TestRail) and made more modular.

A later case study will examine the automated testing phase of this project.

Existing Test Cases

A common goal for using test cases is to identify the requirements that are covered by a given set of tests. In theory, a team could list all the software requirements and then provide acceptance criteria for those requirements. In practice, this can be challenging as requirements and implementation details change which result in extensive maintenance of the test cases themselves.

An example of this is given in the following test case example that was stored in Excel or Google Sheets:

Step

Instruction

Expected Result

1

Login to the enrollment module as a Dept. Admin.

The Enrollment screen appears

2

Click Manage Course Offering

The Course Offering menu screen appears

3

Click the pencil icon next to the term in the header

The Select Term and Set of Courses (SOC) modal appears

4

Start typing a term and select from the drop down, then click the SOC box

The term is added, and you will only see SOCs that you have permission to select, e.g., your department

5

Select one of the SOCs and click the OK button

The SOC is changed in the Manage Course Offering screen

6

Click the Display Course Offerings button

A list of all Course Offerings for the term and SOC selected are displayed

7

From the Action button next to a Course Offering, select View Detail

The Course Offering View modal appears with the Course Offering details

8

Click the Close button

The modal closes

9

Click the Action button next to a Course Offering and select Course Offering Sections

The Course Offering information, the Format Offerings and the Sections are listed

10

Click the Back button

The Course Offering screen reappears

11

Click the Action button next to a Course Offering and select Registration Groups

If there are any, a list of registration groups for the Course Offering appear

12

Click the Back button

The Course Offering screen reappears

13

Click the Action button next to a Course Offering and select Change Log

The Course Offering Version modal appears with a list of all changes made to the Course Offering

A few challenges were found during the initial phase of these trials.

  • The initial steps included the login sequence and then navigating to the page to be tested. However, these steps were out of date because those modules had been updated.
  • Additionally, these initial steps were repeated in other test cases, so the maintenance effort was compounded.
  • The steps for the page being tested had similar maintenance issues, but also, they were very specific to do an exact sequence of operations. As we will see below, this level of specificity is useful and necessary when creating automated tests but can be detrimental for manual testing.

In practice, the testers were spending considerable time in decoding the overall intention of each test case, which button to click, and when to evaluate the expected results. As we will discuss later, many of these issues were addressed by improving the test cases to increase their maintainability and utility.

Benefits of Exploratory Testing

Test cases are useful in some circumstances, but other manual testing strategies can also be utilized as long as the goals for the project are clear. For example, specific test cases are useful for final acceptance testing, having precise control of the coverage of testing, or ensuring that regression testing performs a specific sequence of tests.

Exploratory testing is an alternative approach that Iterators has success with on both large and small projects. Iterators starts with the goals and principles articulated in the ISTQB Foundation Level Software Testing training. In particular, our goal is to find significant bugs and help developers to fix them. Exploratory testing has several advantages over creating and executing test cases.

  • Test cases tend to focus on the “happy path” of users following the intended path through the software, while there are an infinite number of non-happy paths that actual users will follow.
  • This leads to the benefit of testers using their creativity and judgement to find areas that are likely to contain significant bugs or new areas that need testing. Also, diverse testers can find additional areas to test using their unique creativity and judgement in order to improve test coverage.
  • We have also found that test cases tend to constrain testers as they focus on executing the exact steps in the test case and not exploring important aspects of the software.

We use Explore It! by Elisabeth Hendrickson as an excellent reference for the techniques and benefits of this approach. We have found the Explore It! approach is more representative of what actual users will do when they are trying to use the software, because they do not follow the exact sequence expected by developers (or test cases). A classic example is as follows:

Requirement:

A college course can have more than one instructor and these instructors can contribute at different levels that add to 100%, such as 50:50, 60:40, etc.

Test Case Approach:

There are at least 20 test cases that could be written for this requirement. For example, create zero, one, two, or three instructors and try to enter values that do not add up to 100%. Or, try to enter in negative numbers or a value of 0% and verify that the software correctly warns the user when the data are validated.

Bug Found with Exploratory Testing:

  • Create two instructors and try to enter values that do not add to 100%. It was verified that the dialog could not be left without valid entries that lead to 100%, such as 60% for the first instructor and 40% for the second.
  • Go back into the dialog and then delete one of the instructors and leave the dialog. In this case, that leaves one instructor with 60% of the course. BUG: This was allowed while the expected result would be that the 60% should be adjusted to 100%, either manually or automatically.

It is very time consuming to create test cases that cover all eventualities, and the exploratory approach allows test cases to be created ad hoc as the software is examined. There is a time and place for both approaches, and Iterators applies the most cost-effective and appropriate strategies to find bugs to support the current stage of development.

Future case studies will provide details of the next stages of this project with the following examples:

  • Automated end-to-end testing of the user interface using Selenium with a Python/Excel framework
  • Updated test case management using TestRail with modular test cases

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